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Understand the scope of Litigation Privilege

26th June 2019 by Rob Kelly

Categories: What's New?

If a document is “privileged” a party may be entitled to refuse to disclose it to third parties, including an opponent in litigation.  It is an absolute right which cannot be overridden except in very limited circumstances.

But how does privilege arise, and what are the circumstances in which a party may refuse to give disclosure?

Firstly, there are two main types of privilege. 

“Legal advice privilege” protects confidential communications between a legal adviser and their client (but not with third parties) provided that the purpose of the communication was to seek and receive legal advice in the relevant legal context.  (You should therefore exercise caution if you intend to seek legal advice from non-lawyers in relation to non-contentious matters as such communications will not be protected by legal advice privilege.)

“Litigation privilege” protects confidential communications (oral or written) between a client and/or third parties and/or professional legal advisers, provided that the communications were created for the dominant purpose of obtaining legal advice, evidence or information in preparation for litigation which is in progress or is reasonably in contemplation.

However, a dispute between West Ham and the owners of its stadium, E20, relating to the number of seats West Ham is entitled to use in the stadium, has helped clarify the scope of litigation privilege.

The issue in the case concerned the number of seats in the stadium that West Ham Football Club was permitted to use in return for an annual usage fee. E20 withheld full disclosure of a number of documents (including emails between E20’s board and members of the board and other stakeholders) on the grounds that they had been created with the dominant purpose of discussing a commercial settlement of the dispute at a time when litigation was in contemplation and that they were therefore privileged.

The Court of Appeal disagreed: the documents were not protected by litigation privilege as they did not reflect legal advice.

The Court of Appeal held that conducting litigation includes deciding whether to litigate and also whether to settle a dispute and so documents which contain such information or advice which cannot be disentangled are covered by litigation privilege.  However, there is no separate claim for privilege for internal communications which fall outside the ambit of litigation privilege because they neither seek advice nor information, and are documents which contain purely commercial discussions about settlement of a dispute (such as board meeting minutes or emails discussing that topic); such communications are not protected by litigation privilege.

This decision follows earlier decisions in the same case in which the judge granted an application for the inspection of documents which had been redacted on grounds of irrelevance and commercial sensitivity.  The judge emphasised that parties must be prepared to face the consequences – including costs consequences – if they are later shown to have taken an over-zealous approach to the redaction of documents.

These decisions illustrate the importance that the courts attach to the obligation on parties to give disclosure of documents in litigation.

The Court of Appeal’s decision, in particular, will have significant implications in all commercial cases.  The key takeaways are:

  • If board members or employees hold internal discussions about a commercial settlement of a claim and those discussions (a) do not involve obtaining evidence or advice for the claim or (b) go beyond merely reflecting legal advice which may have been received, litigation privilege is unlikely to be available and documents recording such discussions will have to be disclosed to your opponent.
  • All those with an interest in a dispute should understand the importance of retaining litigation privilege and should identify at the earliest possible stage who will deal with communications which are to take place, and set up parameters for restricting the circulation list;
  • Consider appointing an external legal adviser at the earliest stage in relation to any concerns about litigation privilege;
  • Identify the key stakeholders at the outset and ensure that others do not create documents.
  • Be cautious about all communications but be particularly cautious about your written communications.

If you would like any further information with regard Litigation Privilege please contact Rob Kelly on or 01202 755980.

Rob Kelly

Senior Associate — Dispute Resolution

Direct dial: 01202 377871


Rob Kelly
  • “Rob Kelly has been absolutely exceptional in resolving this litigation and so thorough in everything and basically gave the opposition a masterclass of his work that he is so good at.”

    Paul Jeffcoate - Contentious Probate Client

  • “I have had the pleasure of working with several members of the team at Laceys regularly over a period of years. I found Rob Kelly in particular, who worked on a successful litigation case for me over a period of several years to be outstanding in all aspects of the work he undertook, and the manner in which he did it. I now consider him a friend. I would not - and have not - hesitated to recommend Laceys to my family and friends, and continue to use them for all legal matters.”

    Dan Collins

  • “ I just wanted to thank you for your great work on the professional negligence case and other cases you have represented Indian Ocean and Tiien through the last few years.”

    Mehdi Vahdati, Director and Proprietor - Indian Ocean (Bournemouth) Limited

  • “A case that was initially very straightforward became difficult and, for me, very frustrating. Rob Kelly's calm, lucid and very professional advice and planning were invaluable and led to a good outcome.”

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  • “I've worked with a fair few lawyers over the years and Rob Kelly is the most on the ball and efficient lawyers I've ever come across. I'm looking forward to working together for many years to come.”

    Roger Woodall CEO - Diamond Sporting Group

Rob practices in two main, complimentary areas of work – contentious wills, probate and trust disputes, and property disputes.

Contentious wills, probate and trusts

More than half of Rob’s time is spent dealing with the contentious aspects of wills, probate and trusts, an area in which he has practiced continuously for over 20 years.  He advises and acts in disputes relating to wills and inheritance, trusts, the duties of trustees and personal representatives, and the administration of estate.

Rob’s practice embraces:

  • Personal representative and trustee disputes (including personal representative and trustee disagreements, removals / substitutions and alleged misconduct)
  • Disappointed beneficiary claims
  • Will disputes (where the validity of a will is challenged on the grounds of undue influence, lack of testamentary capacity, lack of knowledge and approval of the contents of a will, and fraudulent calumny)
  • Financial provision claims under the Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependants) Act 1975
  • Proprietary estoppel claims
  • Disputes about the proper construction, and rectification, of wills
  • Caveats
  • Professional liability claims arising from the preparation of wills and trusts and the administration of estates

He has mediated (either as appointed mediator or as a representative) dozens of disputes involving contentious wills and probate issues.

Property disputes

The other side of Rob’s practice is contentious property work.  This embraces:

  • Residential and commercial landlord and tenant disputes
  • Disrepairs
  • Repairing covenants
  • Possession claims
  • Lease termination and lease forfeiture
  • Dilapidations
  • Service charge disputes
  • Interpretation and enforcement of leasehold covenants

Rob’s style is a mix of listening, asking (tough) questions, diplomacy and reality testing. He’s interested, flexible, and pragmatic. He offers a common sense, realistic approach to assist his clients in searching for solutions to their disputes and brings straight talking and integrity to his work.

Rob is an Associate Member of the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives.  He holds an LLB (Hons) degree in law.  He successfully completed training as a mediator under the ADR Chambers / Harvard Law Project Scheme in June 2006, was one of the first mediators to have been appointed an IMI Certified Mediation Advocate in the UK with a commercial practice, and is a member of the Civil Mediation Council.

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